ABA report provides post-pandemic advice for lawyers

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

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ABA Report Provides Post-Pandemic Advice For Lawyers

 

The pandemic and its effects have dramatically affected the practice of law and will continue to to have a long-term impact on the ways that legal work is conducted in the years to come. The good news is that now that vaccine rates are on the rise in the United States, it’s possible for members of the legal profession to envision and prepare for the post-pandemic world.

That’s where a new report issued by the ABA Coordinating Group on Practice Forward comes in. This Report was published a few weeks ago and is designed to increase understanding about both the impact of the pandemic on the practice of law and predictions about the future of the legal profession.

The Report, “Practicing Law in the Pandemic and Moving Forward: Results and Best Practices from a Nationwide Survey of the Legal Profession,” was based on input from 4,200 ABA members “from all geographic areas, practice settings, sizes of firms, corporations, and organizations, levels of experience, age, family status, races and ethnicities, types of gender identity, and types of disabilities.” The results cover a broad range of topics such as the impact of the pandemic on the legal profession, the post-pandemic expectations of lawyers, the impact of the pandemic on diversity and inclusion, and recommendations for both legal employers and individual lawyers.

The Report included, among other things, recommendations for lawyers seeking to take advantage the “new normal” on the other side of the pandemic. For example, one key piece of advice contained in the Report for lawyers in leadership positions is that they should take steps to maintain law firm culture now that working remotely has become commonplace and will likely continue in the post-pandemic world.

Notably, the authors emphasized the importance of having the technology in place to facilitate communicating and collaborating with work colleagues regardless of where they happen to be working: “(T)he pandemic has underscored the importance of collaboration, communication, and teamwork. Going forward, organizations need to better understand how to foster resilient, effective and gritty teams that can work well together, rather than a culture where lawyers are siloed, rarely interact at a personal level, and are prone to hoarding work or clients for themselves.”

Another key piece of advice from the Report is the need for law firm leaders to prioritize technology spend in order build in business resiliency. This is because the pandemic ushered in a remote working revolution, and out of necessity, most law firms were eventually able to put technology stacks into place during the pandemic. More often than not the tools relied upon to facilitate remote work included cloud-based tools since putting that software in place was the only way to ensure continued operation and financial stability.

For many firms, those technologies now play an important part in their business continuity plan and help to protect the firms from the effects of another unplanned disruption. According to the authors of the Report, this built-in business resiliency is one of the keys to success in the post-pandemic world: “If the profession is to move forward to more remote working, employers need to provide both state-of-the-art technology and readily available staff to help out when glitches arise. It could, for example, be a good investment for firms to provide stipends that help lawyers, as well as staff and paralegals, to obtain the resources that they need to sustain a home office…”

Finally, the authors of the Report suggested that the pandemic offers the legal profession an opportunity to restructure the way that law firms operate. For far too long legal employers have remained stubbornly resistant to fundamental changes and have insisted that alternative ways of practicing law, such as remote work, were an impossibility given the nature of the practice of law.

As the authors explain, the pandemic has shown that their protestations were grounded in outdated assumptions, rather than in facts: “The unprecedented transition to remote work has truly created a ‘new normal,’ and this paradigm shift will have far-reaching consequences for the profession well after the pandemic has abated…As we emerge from the pandemic, we have the unique opportunity to re-evaluate and reimagine all aspects of the practice of law. For too many years, law firms, companies, and other work settings that employ lawyers have defaulted to structures, policies, and practices that are a carryover from decades-old approaches to hiring, retention, advancement, compensation, and diversity.”

Hear hear! It’s high time that we reimagined the practice of law by taking full advantage of the many benefits offered by technology. Is your law firm ready for the “new normal”? If not, what are you waiting for? There’s no better time than now to prepare for the future of law practice by laying the technological building blocks for success in the post-pandemic world.

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


It’s lawyer well-being week, so make sure to take care of yourself

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

It’s not easy being a lawyer. Even though it’s a fulfilling profession, practicing law can be also be stressful. That’s why the National Task Force on Lawyer Well-Being established Lawyer Well-Being Week, and the goal is to ensure that lawyers focus on wellness and take steps to reduce their stress levels. This year it’s scheduled for May 3rd to the 7th and we happen to be in the midst of it as I write this article.

Unfortunately, according to the results of a recently released report from the ABA, many lawyers rarely take are of themselves as well as they should. The most recent edition of the report, “The ABA Profile of the Profession” was released last year and is full of lots of statistics that show just how stressed out lawyers can be.

The data in this Report is particularly relevant given the negative impact that COVID-19 has had on mental health. The difficulties encountered when working from home combined with the effects of social distancing have amplified the pressures that are unique to lawyering. And the resulting elevated stress levels often have disastrous effects.

For example, according to the Report, lawyers are susceptible to higher rates of depression, addiction, and suicide compared to the general population. The data from the Report shows that 21% of lawyers qualify as problem drinkers, which is more than three times the rate of the general population and nearly double the rate for other highly educated professionals. Also notable is that 28% of lawyers struggle with depression as well and 19% also have symptoms of anxiety. Given these statistics, it’s not surprising to learn that 11.5% have suicidal thoughts as well.

Lawyers with depression or addiction issues are also more likely to face disciplinary charges. This is because when lawyers suffer from the effects of addiction and/or mental illness, their struggle affects their ability to practice law effectively. That’s why the survey results showed 25% to 30% of lawyers facing disciplinary charges suffer from some type of addiction or mental illness.

Unfortunately, despite the high numbers of stressed-out lawyers, many law firms fail to provide attorneys with sufficient mental health resources and support. In fact, the results of the report indicate that only 16% of lawyers strongly agreed that their firms were very supportive of their mental health needs. Another 6% strongly agreed that their firms didn’t support them at all. And only 26% of lawyers surveyed reported that their firms provided information on 12-step programs or other mental health resources.

However, it’s important to note that legal employers aren’t entirely to blame for the lack of lawyer wellness. The failure of lawyers to prioritize their mental health and work-life balance are also contributing factors to their stress levels. For example, 38% of lawyers surveyed indicated they often work long hours, and 9% admitted that they “never stop working.” A full quarter of lawyers surveyed reported that they failed to take adequate breaks during during their workday, and 32% felt pressure to refrain from taking vacation time.

The bottom line: the legal profession needs to change how it addresses mental health. And what better time to commit to improving wellness than on the tails of Lawyer Well-Being Week? Now is the perfect time for legal employers to resolve to take steps to change cutthroat law firm culture and provide support and resources for attorneys. Similarly, lawyers should proactively prioritize their mental health and work toward a higher level of wellness. 

If you’re not sure where to start, the Monroe County Bar Association offers a number of different wellness resources, including several confidential programs to help attorneys in need. For example, there’s the Lawyers Concerned for Lawyers Committee, which provides a safe environment for legal or judicial professionals suffering from alcohol or drug addiction and for family members concerned about their loved ones. There’s also a stress & anxiety virtual support group that meets monthly on the first Tuesday of every month at  5 p.m. Confidential counseling is also available Through the Tree of Hope. Finally, the incoming MCBA president, attorney Bradley Kammholz, will be focusing on relationships and wellness during his tenure, so there will undoubtedly be more wellness opportunities in the year to come.

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


Round Up: Secure Communication, Post-Pandemic Law Firms, Practice Management Software, and More

SpiralI often write articles and blog posts for other outlets and am going to post a round up here from time to time (but won't include my weekly Daily Record articles in the round up since I re-publish them to this blog in full). Here are my posts and articles published from April:


Top gadgets for lawyers working from a home office

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

Top Gadgets for Lawyers Working From a Home Office

It’s been more than a year since the start of the pandemic, and what a year it’s been! The good news is that as we head into the spring, the light is finally visible at the end of the tunnel as vaccination rates increase. As a result, sometime in the near future we may finally be able to head back to our offices on a full or part-time basis.

Of course, we’ll be returning to the offices in what will be a “new normal.” While we don’t know what that will look like, one thing is for sure: it will almost certainly include more remote work. This is because lawyers now know remote work is possible and have more trust and familiarity with the cloud computing technologies that support it. One way or another, working from home will undoubtedly be commonplace on the other side of the pandemic.

For that reason, the New York State Bar Association recently held a CLE that focused entirely on gadgets for the home office, and I was fortunate enough to be one of the panelists. During that presentation I shared a few of my favorite remote working gadgets. Since many of us continue to work remotely during this stage of the pandemic and will continue to do so at an increased rate even after the pandemic ends, I decided it would be worthwhile to share some of the gadgets I discussed in that  presentation.

First, you should definitely invest in a Wi-Fi mesh router. I recommend either Amazon’s Eero mesh router or Google’s version. These routers are perfect for the home office because the mesh network, which is made up of individual Wi-Fi points that “talk” to one another, has an extensive reach. Setup is quick and simple, and you can control the router and change its settings using your smartphone.

Next, you’ll need a good portable laptop stand - or two. My favorite all-around stand is the Aidata LHA-3 LAPstand Aluminum Portable Laptop Stand. This is a fairly lightweight laptop stand and weighs 1.8 pounds. It has three different settings, so you have options when it comes to the placement and angle of your laptop. It folds flat for easy storage and fits right into your laptop bag when traveling. It costs $29.99 on Amazon.

Another option to consider is the Moft “invisible” laptop stand. I prefer the version that attaches to the bottom of your laptop via an adhesive backing, but it’s also available in a standalone version as well. This stand weighs only 3 ounces, and when not in use it folds nearly flush and lays flat at 1/9 of an inch. It can be folded into two different height settings, and costs $24.99.

I also recommend that you consider investing in a standalone touchpad instead of a mouse. I prefer the Apple Magic Trackpad 2, but there are also many different PC-compatible touchpads available at Amazon and elsewhere. The reason I prefer a touchpad over a mouse is because it offers a more ergonomic way to interact with your computer’s interface, and ultimately puts much less stress on your hand and wrist. An added benefit is that because it’s flat and thin, it’s much easier to transport whether for travel purposes or otherwise.

Another gadget to purchase for ergonomic reasons is portable keyboard. Typing using your laptop’s keypad can cause stress to your hand after a while;  that’s where a wireless keyboard comes in. I use Apple’s Magic Wireless Keyboard since it’s a full-size keyboard that is lightweight and portable. No matter what brand you buy, a wireless keyboard is a must-have for remote-working lawyers - especially if you plan to travel a lot once the pandemic is over.

I would also suggest you invest in a pair of wireless earbuds. I prefer Apple AirPods, but there are plenty of other brands available that work well, too. I guarantee that once you use wireless earbuds and are able to engage in unencumbered, hands-free phone conversations, you won’t be able to recall how you got by without them. Trust me, they’re well worth the price you’ll pay.

Next, consider adding a little light to your workspace with a desk lamp like the multi-function TaoTronics LED lamp. This adjustable desk light has a built-in Qi wireless charger for your devices, along with a USB port. It’s also dimmable with fully customizable color and brightness settings, and includes a timer along with memory functionality. It can be yours for $59.99 at Amazon.

Finally, but not least, consider investing in a portable charging station. I own the udoq Multi-Device Charging Station, but there are plenty of other choices available. A charging station is a great gadget to have in your home office, since it provides a convenient and orderly way to keep your devices charged. Wires are typically hidden behind the device, and you simply dock your mobile devices when you walk in the door and charge them as you work.

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


Tips for Managing Remote Employees

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

Tips for Managing Remote Employees

The shift to remote work was an abrupt and unexpected change for most businesses, including law firms. For that reason, it didn’t always go smoothly. However, over time, most legal employers were eventually able to work through the challenges and put technology and work processes in place that allowed their workforce to get work done efficiently regardless of where it was occurring.

This is good news for law firms with remote work technologies and systems in place, since the pandemic’s course continues to be unpredictable. As a result, full-time remote work may continue to be with us for some time. Forward thinking law firm leaders should, therefore, take advantage of this opportunity to fine tune their management skills for both in-office or remote teams.

Because law firm leaders are traditionally accustomed to overseeing in-office employees, new approaches may be needed when managing a remote workforce. Notably, even when the pandemic ends, there will likely be more employees working remotely. Fortunately, many management techniques apply equally well to both remote and in-office teams. With that in mind, what follows are tips to help law firm leaders manage their teams effectively regardless of where team members are located.

First and foremost, make sure that your law firm is has remote working tools in place that are efficient and easy-to-use. Otherwise, your team won’t be able to get work done efficiently. Your team should be using software that includes all of the features needed to simplify and streamline the virtual practice of law, including e-signature tools, online intake forms, internal chat functionality, and videoconferencing capabilities. It’s also important to ensure that your team has been sufficiently trained to use your firm’s remote working tools and are leveraging that technology to its fullest potential.

Next, take steps to improve virtual meetings. Zoom fatigue is a real issue; as we all know, staring at a screen all day can take its toll. For that reason, encourage employees to: 1) Take screen breaks, 2) Try to intersperse online meetings with other types of work, to the extent that it’s possible, 3) Avoid multitasking and focus on one task at a time, 4) Consider keeping only one browser tab open during meetings to encourage better focus, and 5) Find alternate ways to connect that don’t involve video conferences.

Also of import whether you’re managing an in-person or remote workforce is to acknowledge that firm leaders set the tenor for their teams and for the firm overall. Fostering a sense of community is key even when your team is dispersed and working from home. The tone of communications and the messages sent to employees, both literal and figurative, directly affect the job satisfaction and overall happiness of your firm’s workforce.

Ideas for ways to improve communication and community include: 1) Schedule virtual water-cooler hours, 2) Focus on wellness by encouraging your firm’s workforce to prioritize self care, 3) Encourage your team members to take regular breaks throughout the workday, and 4) Model work-life balance by suggesting that employees put their work computer away at the end of the day in order to create a sense of space between work and recreation.

Finally, here are some additional ideas to consider implementing as a law firm leader in order to keep your team motivated and productive. Create a positive work environment for your team members by: 1) Showing appreciation and regularly providing positive reinforcement, 2) Regularly checking in to see if team members are comfortable with their pace, assignments, and workload , 3) Creating a pleasant work atmosphere, and 4) Treating them as equals and never talking down to them.

The bottom line: Make your employees’ happiness a priority. Listen to their concerns, understand their needs, and take steps today to ensure that they feel appreciated and respected. If you take my advice and implement these tips, your team will be happy and productive regardless of where they happen to be working, and your efforts will undoubtedly pay off in the log run!

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


A Virtually Perfect MCBA Legal Conference

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

A Virtually Perfect MCBA Legal Conference

More than a year has passed since the start of the pandemic and life has yet to return to any semblance of normal. Social distancing and mask requirements are still in place and interacting in person inside for lengthy amounts of time is inadvisable. That means that when it comes to legal conferences, virtual conferences are all we’ve got for now, for better or for worse.

Unfortunately, most remote conferences are boring. The reality is that virtual conferences fall flat and fail to replicate a feeling of true interaction and engagement. Instead, the experience typically feels very one dimensional, something that is further compounded by the fact that people are simply tired of videoconferencing day in and day out. Now that we’re more than a year into the pandemic, the traditional virtual conference simply feels like an extension of remote-working rather than a fun break from it.

The good news is that there’s a better option: avatar-based conferences. When you interact in this type of virtual environment, you’re able to become fully immersed in the experience. Avatar-based conferences are the next best thing to attending a conference in person because you can walk around the online campus, speak to people (using your computer’s microphone), interact in groups, meet up with people at different locations throughout the campus, go on boat rides, and much more.

Of course, if you’re not a gamer, I can imagine that as you’re reading this you’re a bit hesitant about the idea. Rest assured, you’re not the only one. When I pitched my idea to hold an avatar-based conference to the Monroe County Bar Association’s Solo and Small Firm Conference planning committee, they were initially unsure about it and had a lot of questions. But eventually, with the support of the Bar Association’s forward-thinking Executive Director, Kevin Ryan, they agreed to give it a try and the conference occurred last week.

Needless to say, I think they made an incredibly smart decision by green lighting this idea. Because let’s face it: lawyers are suffering from Zoom fatigue,. While it would be ideal to get together in person, we can’t. And as we learned last week, an avatar-based conference in virtual environment is the next best thing.

So without further ado, let’s talk about the conference. It was held on a virtual campus leased from EDRM (Electronic Discovery and Reference Model), and was held over two days during the afternoons on April 8th and 9th.

The first session focused on getting everyone’s avatars set up. During that 30-minute session we ironed out a few technical issues for some of the participants, and then before we knew it, we were on our way!

After everyone had an opportunity to explore the virtual campus for a bit, we convened in the main auditorium for the Keynote from Heidi Alexander, Director of the Massachusetts SJC Standing Committee on Lawyer Well-Being. She spoke about lessons learned during the pandemic and the future of law practice. Then, after a breakout networking session, we re-convened in the main auditorium and Jared Correia, the founder and CEO of Red Cave Law Firm Consulting, spoke about the impact of the pandemic on the practice of law and how lawyers could use their learnings to thrive in the “new normal.”

The last event of the day was a virtual wine tasting on the beach. We tasted three different wines from the award-winning Finger Lakes winery, Silver Thread Vineyard. The in-depth tasting was led by Shannon Brock, the winery owner and general manager, and everyone learned a lot about the wines we sampled, along with overall the Finger Lakes region wine-making experience.

The next afternoon we reconvened for Day 2 of the conference. Throughout the day there were two plenaries and two different breakout networking sessions. Attendees also had opportunities to visit the vendor hall, take breaks on the beach, go on virtual boat rides, visit the soccer field, travel to the top of the lighthouse, and explore other locations within the virtual campus.

And then, before we knew it, after another full day of networking and learning, the conference drew to a close. We said our goodbyes, hung up our virtual avatars, shut off our computers, and headed off into the weekend.

After speaking with many of the attendees, I’m happy to report that a fun time was had by all! We’d collectively tried something new and different by throwing caution to the wind and diving avatar-first into this conference; for that I couldn’t be more proud.

I left this experience feeling thankful for many things. First, I’m grateful for the cutting-edge technologies that have allowed us to remotely interact (in avatar-form no less!) and work throughout the course of the pandemic. Second, I’m appreciative of my trail-blazing colleagues who were willing to cast doubt aside and give this crazy idea a shot. And last but not least, I’m reminded of how incredibly fortunate I am to be a part of this tight knit, collegial legal community where a pioneering and innovative spirit is alive and well. 

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


Round Up: Law Practice Management Software, Litigation Fact Management Software, ABA TECHSHOW, and More

SpiralI often write articles and blog posts for other outlets and am going to post a round up here from time to time (but won't include my weekly Daily Record articles in the round up since I re-publish them to this blog in full). Here are my posts and articles published from March:


New Jersey on the ethics of ‘reply all’ emails

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

New Jersey On The Ethics Of “Reply All” Emails

Lawyers have communicated with clients via electronic means for more than two decades. For most of that time period, email has been the preferred and primary method of electronic communication. However, over time, email - which is inherently unsecure and is no different than sending a postcard written in pencil through the post office - has begun to fall out of favor as technology has improved.

For that reason, in recent years, more secure communication methods are increasingly being recommended by ethics committees and cybersecurity security experts. More secure options include encrypted email and the encrypted client communication portals built into law practice management software, for the reasons set forth in ABA Opinion 477, where the ethics committee concluded that due to “cyber-threats and (the fact that) the proliferation of electronic communications devices have changed the landscape…it is not always reasonable to rely on the use of unencrypted email.”

Despite this recommendation, many lawyers continue to use unencrypted email for confidential client communications, and doing so can sometimes compromise confidentiality. For example, the New Jersey Supreme Court Advisory Committee on Professional Ethics recently addressed one of the many ethical risks posed by email: the use of the “reply all” functionality.

At issue in NJ Ethics Opinion 739, which was handed down in March, was whether ethical issues were presented when lawyers used the “reply all” function to respond to a group email that had been sent by a lawyer who had cc:d his client in on the original email. Specifically the inquiring lawyer queried whether lawyers who used the “reply all” function in that scenario were unethically communicating with his client without consent, thus compromising the confidentiality and sanctity of the attorney-client relationship.

At the outset, the Committee noted that the applicable Rule of Professional Conduct was Rule 4.2, which  provides: “In representing a client, a lawyer shall not communicate about the subject of the representation with a person the lawyer knows, or by the exercise of reasonable diligence should know, to be represented by another lawyer in the matter ….”

Next, the Committee wisely considered analogous offline conduct prior to reaching its determination. Specifically the Committee explained that when lawyers receive a letter where opposing counsel’s client is copied, it would be unethical for the recipient lawyer to respond by writing a letter addressed to both the lawyer and the client. In comparison, if a lawyer placed a phone call to another attorney and the client was on the line as well, the lawyer who initiated the call would have been deemed to impliedly consent “to opposing counsel speaking on the call and thereby communicating both with the opposing lawyer and that lawyer's client.”

According to the Committee, because email is a decidedly informal method of communicating, when clients are cc:d in on a group email, it is assumed that all replies to the email are directed  toward the attorneys in the group and not the client.

The Committee acknowledged that some other jurisdictions have concluded otherwise, and have found that implied consent to client communications does not occur in this scenario. However, the Committee specifically rejected that determination since “these opinions from other jurisdictions do not fully appreciate the informal nature of group email or recognize the unfairness of exposing responding lawyers to ethical sanctions for this conduct.”

Therefore, the Committee concluded that implied consent does, in fact, in this situation and that “(l)awyers who initiate a group email and find it convenient to include their client should not then be able to claim an ethics violation if opposing counsel uses a ‘reply all’ response. ‘Reply all’ in a group email should not be an ethics trap for the unwary or a ‘gotcha' moment for opposing counsel. The Committee finds that lawyers who include their clients in group emails are deemed to have impliedly consented to opposing counsel replying to the entire group, including the lawyer's client.”

I wholeheartedly agree with the Committee’s conclusion, and particularly appreciate that it reached its determination on this issue by considering how Rule 4.2 is applied to analogous forms of offline communication. Because, as I always say, the online is simply an extension of the online. New rules are rarely required for online conduct. Instead, existing rules and principles can be applied to online conduct thus providing more relevant and concrete guidance that will withstand the test of time.

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


Zoom Etiquette Guidance Offered to New York Lawyers

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

Zoom Etiquette Guidance Offered to New York Lawyers

If you regularly read my column you know that I’ve been encouraging lawyers to use technology for over a decade now. When I first started writing about technology, I highlighted the benefits that social media and blogging could offer lawyers. From there I shifted my focus to mobile computing and cloud-based tools, and then eventually artificial intelligence legal software. Regardless of which technology I was focused on at any given time, my primary goal has always been to lawyers to motivate lawyers to familiarize themselves with - and begin to use - these emerging tools.

In the early years, my efforts often fell on deaf ears. Generally speaking, lawyers wanted nothing to do with all of the newfangled technology that I was so excited about. But over time, attitudes have changed, in part because the technologies I was evangelizing were becoming part of our day-to-day lives. This entanglement of technology with mainstream culture ultimately had the end effect of changing the practice of law, whether lawyers were on board or not. And eventually, once lawyers actually tried out any given tool, they oftentimes found that it actually had a positive impact on both their personal and professional lives.

That’s why, in 2012, the American Bar Association acknowledged the indisputable influence of technology on the practice of law when it modified comment 8 to Model Rule 1.1 to state that maintaining technology competence is part of the ethical obligations of lawyers. The first states to adopt this duty of technology competence did so in 2013, and New York followed suit in 2015. Most recently, California joined their ranks, and became the 39th state to adopt this duty when the California Supreme Court approved the new rule on Feb. 18, 2021.

It’s no coincidence that this continued emphasis on technology competence has occurred in parallel with the increased reliance by law firms on remote working technologies. The global pandemic in which we now find ourselves took most everyone by surprise and resulted in a greatly accelerated rate of technology adoption by the legal profession and the general population as a whole. Social distancing requirements necessitated remote interaction, and as a result cloud-based software, including videoconferencing tools, quickly became commonplace in most households.

Notably, the rapid technology adoption did not occur without a few hiccups. In fact, it has seemed as if not a day has gone by without a Zoom fail making the news, many of which feature lawyer gaffes during Zoom court appearances. These headlines have occurred with such frequency that I recently penned a Daily Record column wherein I urged lawyers to “stop acting like idiots online.”

It would seem that I’m not the only one who is at the end of their rope when it comes to this issue, since top administrative law judges in New York State recently issued a memorandum entitled “Virtual Proceedings - Appropriate Decorum.” 

Prior to providing its recommended videoconferencing protocols for New York lawyers, the judges explained why it’s so important for lawyers to behave properly during virtual court proceedings: “The COVID-19 pandemic has required all courts across New York State to innovate and adapt in order to continue to provide the effective and efficient administration of justice and Access to Justice for all court users consistent with the highest standards…Appropriate decorum/etiquette is a necessity during all virtual court proceedings.”

Next, they provided the following guidance to New York lawyers who appear remotely in court proceedings. While the recommendations offered seem to be fairly self-evident, if recent headlines are any indication, they are a much-needed addition to the virtual toolbox of lawyers who appear in court remotely:

  • Dress in appropriate attire, as if you were appearing in-person in court
  • Display an appropriate and professional background
  • No consumption of food or drink during the proceeding
  • Remain professional and dignified
  • As in ln-Person proceedings, only one person should be speaking at a time.

Now that lawyers have this videoconferencing advice readily available, I have the utmost confidence that the salacious headlines regarding lawyers’ inappropriate behavior on Zoom will decline significantly. From here on in, I fully expect New York lawyers to be fully dressed, dignified, and polite whenever they make a virtual appearance. Capisce? Capisce.

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


ABA weighs in on the ethics of practicing law virtually

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

Because of the pandemic, lawyers are working remotely more than ever before, and many will likely continue to do so - at least occasionally - even after the pandemic is behind us. Now that practicing law virtually is more commonplace than ever, many different bar associations have recently handed down ethics opinions that address the ethical issues to consider when working from a remote location. Most recently, the American Bar Association weighed in on this issue on March 10th in Formal Opinion 498. In this opinion, the ABA Standing Committee on Ethics and Professional Responsibility offered ethical guidance on a host of issues that are triggered when law firm employees work remotely. The opinion covers a wide range of topics and is worth an in-depth read, but for the purposes of this article, I’m going to focus on the technology-specific recommendations.

Notably, at the outset, the Committee acknowledged that all of the ethical issues discussed apply whether a firm’s workforce is working in the office or elsewhere, but that the issues may need to be addressed differently when a firm is operating remotely.

Prior to offering guidance, the Committee first provided its definition of a virtual practice, which it stated was a “technologically enabled law practice beyond the traditional brick-and-mortar law firm.” This definition comports with the general understanding of this concept.

Next, the Committee explained the rationale behind providing this type of ethical guidance at this time. According to Committee, recent events have resulted in an acceleration of technology adoption in the legal profession and as a result, updated guidance was necessary: “Virtual practice began years ago but has accelerated recently, both because of enhanced technology (and enhanced technology usage by both clients and lawyers) and increased need.”

The Committee then turned to specific technology-related guidance, and explained that regardless of where law firm employees are working, maintaining client confidentiality is of the utmost importance. That being said, when employees work from remote locations, reasonable steps must be taken to ensure that procedures are in place that sufficiently protect client data: “(A) non-exhaustive list of factors may guide the lawyer’s determination of reasonable efforts to safeguard confidential information: ‘the sensitivity of the information, the likelihood of disclosure if additional safeguards are not employed, the cost of employing additional safeguards, the difficulty of implementing the safeguards, and the extent to which the safeguards adversely affect the lawyer’s ability to represent clients…’"

According to the Committee, particularly sensitive client data will warrant increased protection: “(D)epending on the circumstances, lawyers may need to take special precautions…Factors to consider to assist the lawyer in determining the reasonableness of the ‘expectation of confidentiality include the sensitivity of the information and the extent to which the privacy of the communication is protected by law or by a confidentiality agreement.’”

Next the Committee addressed the options available to lawyers that may need to encrypt some types of more sensitive data, especially when it comes to communicating with clients about confidential information electronically. The Committee explained that in some cases unencrypted email is insufficient and secure online client communications portals like the ones available in law practice management software may be necessary: “As ABA Formal Op. 477R noted, a ‘lawyer has a variety of options to safeguard communications including, for example, using secure internet access methods to communicate, access and store client information (such as through secure Wi-Fi, the use of a Virtual Private Network, or another secure internet portal)…”

Last but not least, the Committee focused on a potential, and possibly unexpected,  issue that may affect many lawyers and law firm firm employees working from home: the security of smart listening devices such as Amazon Echo or Apple’s Siri. The Committee explained that in some cases these devices should be turned off when confidential information is being discussed: “Unless the technology is assisting the lawyer’s law practice, the lawyer should disable the listening capability of devices or services such as smart speakers, virtual assistants, and other listening-enabled devices while communicating about client matters. Otherwise, the lawyer is exposing the client’s and other sensitive information to unnecessary and unauthorized third parties and increasing the risk of hacking.”

Those are just some of the issues covered in this very concise, but comprehensive opinion. I strongly suggest that you review the entire opinion since it provides ethical guidance on a number of different security issues that may be triggered when a law firm’s workforce is displaced from the office, or otherwise working remotely - something that is likely to become increasingly common in the years to come.

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


New Cybersecurity Recommendations For Lawyers

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

New Cybersecurity Recommendations For Lawyers

Now that lawyers have been intermittently working remotely over the past year - and may continue to do so in the near future - their ethical obligations relating to cybersecurity practices have taken on a whole new level of importance. That’s why technology competence is paramount in 2021: it is essential for law firm leaders to have a full understanding of cybersecurity issues and how they may affect their displaced workforces, especially since lawyers and other law firm employees will likely continue work remotely at different times throughout the coming year.

The good news is that since the start of the pandemic, a number of different bar associations have provided cybersecurity ethical guidance, with the State bar of Wisconsin most recently weighing in on this issues in Wisconsin Formal Ethics Opinion EF-21-02. In this January opinion, the Wisconsin Bar ethics committee offers advice on a number of different issues related to practicing law remotely, including lawyers’ obligations to secure IT systems, protect confidentiality and communicate securely.

At the outset, the Committee focused on the duty of technology competence, explaining that basic technology competence includes, at the very least, “knowledge of the types of devices available for communication, software options for communication, preparation, transmission and storage of documents and other information, and the means to keep the devices and the information they transmit and store secure and private.”

Next, the Committee turned to its cybersecurity recommendations and emphasized the importance of securing law firm devices and systems by putting into place strong safeguards to provide protection for remote working processes. The guidance included a broad range of cybersecurity issues, including password protection, encryption, data backup, and secure communication.

After providing a brand spectrum of general advice, the Committee then offered extensive list of cybersecurity recommendations. What follows is a truncated version of the cybersecurity best practices covered by that list:

  • Require strong passwords to protect data and to access devices.
  • Use two-factor or multifactor authentication to access firm information and firm networks.
  • Avoid using unsecured or public WiFi when accessing or transmitting client information.
  • Use a virtual private network (VPN) when accessing or transmitting client information.
  • Use and keep current antivirus and antimalware software.
  • Keep all software current: install updates immediately.
  • Supply or require employees to use secure and encrypted laptops.
  • Do not use USB drives or other external devices unless they are owned by the firm or they are provided by a trusted source.
  • Specify how and where data created remotely will be stored and how it will be backed up.
  • Save data permanently only on the office network, not personal devices.
  • Use reputable vendors for cloud services.
  • Encrypt emails or use other security to protect sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure.
  • Encrypt electronic records, including backups containing sensitive information such as personally identifiable information.
  • Do not open suspicious attachments or click unusual links in messages, email, tweets, posts, or online ads.
  • Use websites that have enhanced security whenever possible.
  • Do not have work-related conversations in the presence of smart devices such as voice assistants.

Certainly, there’s even more advice where that came from, so make sure to read the opinion in its entirety for lots of useful cybersecurity guidance from the State Bar of Wisconsin. And then, take the advice offered to heart and implement any cybersecurity suggestions not yet in place in your firm. Finally, and most importantly of all - maintain technology competence, keep innovating, and stay safe out there!

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


Pennsylvania Lawyers Can Ethically Practice Remotely From Out-Of-State

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

Pennsylvania Lawyers Can Ethically Practice Remotely From Out-Of-State

In March of last year, as we faced lock downs and the newfound threat of COVID-19, remote work became a sudden and unexpected reality. Law firms shut their doors and sent everyone home, and the work-from-home revolution began out of necessity, not choice.

As lawyers tried to adapt to the “new normal,” they encountered ethical quandaries when transitioning their dispersed workforces to the cloud-based technologies that would facilitate remote working. Because working-from-home was not commonplace prior to the pandemic, there wasn’t much ethical guidance available regarding technology use that lawyers could turn to.

Fortunately, on April 10, 2020, the Pennsylvania Bar stepped up to the plate and issued Formal Opinion 2020-300. In that opinion, the Pennsylvania Bar Association Committee on Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility provided guidance on how lawyers and their staff can ethically provide legal services while working remotely.

Since that time, as lawyers have continued to work from locations both inside and outside of the jurisdictions in which they’re licensed, another ethical issue has arisen: whether an attorney working remotely long term from a jurisdiction in which they’re unlicensed constitutes the unauthorized practice of law. The Florida Bar Association, D.C. Bar Association, and the American Bar Association have already addressed this issue, and now the Pennsylvania Bar Association, in conjunction with the Philadelphia Bar Association, have joined their ranks by issuing Joint Formal Opinion 2021-100.

At issue in this opinion is whether it is ethical for a lawyer licensed in Pennsylvania to work remotely from another jurisdiction in which the lawyer is not licensed. The Committee summed up the situation leading to the consideration of this issue and the ethical dilemma presented as follows: “The shift to a predominantly remote-based practice model has raised concerns whether a Pennsylvania lawyer practicing law from a physical location outside of Pennsylvania engages in the unauthorized practice of law even though the attorney’s practice is limited to practicing Pennsylvania law for clients in Pennsylvania.”

The Joint Committee acknowledged that the American Bar Association had previously addressed this issue in ABA Formal Opinion 495 and had concluded that “(t)he purpose of Model Rule 5.5 is to protect the public from unlicensed and unqualified practitioners of law…(and) is not served by prohibiting a lawyer from practicing the law of a jurisdiction in which the lawyer is licensed, for clients with matters in that jurisdiction, if the lawyer is for all intents and purposes invisible as a lawyer to a local jurisdiction where the lawyer is physically located, but not licensed.”

In reaching its conclusion, the Joint Committee adopted the ABA committee’s rationale and concluded that Pennsylvania lawyers could ethically work remotely from a jurisdiction in which they were not licensed as long as there are no statutes, rules, opinions or case law of that jurisdiction in place that would prohibit them from doing so. The Joint Committee determined that this type of remote work is permissible but “lawyers may not hold themselves out as being licensed to practice in the local jurisdiction and may not advertise or otherwise hold themselves out as having an office in the local jurisdiction, or provide or offer to provide legal services in the local jurisdiction, the fact that they are physically located there does not bar them from working remotely for the same clients.”

This opinion, and the ones from the bar associations that preceded it, are evidence of a greater trend: the pandemic has ushered in a new normal for the legal profession. Remote working, and the cloud-based technology needed to enable it, are here to stay. Practicing law from any location is becoming an accepted and commonplace practice. So if you’re still on the fence regarding the use of cloud computing software in your law firm, what are you waiting for? The tides have turned, and there’s no better time than now to make the transition to working remotely using cloud-based technology.

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


Round Up: Document Assembly Software, Legal Tech Adoption, and Cybersecurity

SpiralI often write articles and blog posts for other outlets and am going to post a round up here from time to time (but won't include my weekly Daily Record articles in the round up since I re-publish them to this blog in full). Here are my posts and articles published from February:


N.Y. Bar opines on online lawyer-client matching services

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

Since the turn of the century, the internet has increasingly become part of our day-to-day lives. Initially, this new reality presented a bit of a challenge for precedent-based, risk-averse lawyers. As a result, in most cases the legal profession as a whole has adapted to the online world more slowly than the general population. Internet marketing, however, was one of the exceptions, and lawyers recognized its potential fairly early on.

That being said, ethics rulings have been one of the primary roadblocks for lawyers seeking to obtain clients via the internet. Since the advent of online advertising, ethics committees across the country have approached it with suspicion and have typically interpreted ethics rules narrowly, issuing holdings that tend to limit the ability of lawyers to advertise and market their services online.

This is especially so when it comes to lawyer-client matching services and the sharing of online referral fees with non-lawyers. Historically, ethics committees have frowned on this practice, permitting fee-sharing arrangements for online referral services under very limited circumstances. The latest opinion from the New York State Bar Association’s Committee on Professional Ethics is no exception. At issue in Opinion 1213, which was decided in January, was whether a fee-sharing arrangement between a lawyer and an online attorney-client matching website was permissible where the match included a “recommendation” of the attorney.

Specifically, the inquiring attorney was seeking input as to whether it would be ethical to participate in an online attorney referral service where the referral fee would be collected by the site, and the matching service vouched “for the lawyer’s credentials, competence and effectiveness…(when recommending) the lawyer as the ‘best lawyer’ for the needs of the potential client.”

The specific service at issue connected individuals who had received a traffic violation with lawyers in their area who were “the best local traffic lawyer for the case.” Once a potential client was paired with a lawyer, they received a price quote that was set by the lawyer. After the client paid said legal fee, a portion of it was kept by the online matching site as a service charge and the remainder was transferred to the lawyer.

Other relevant facts regarding the service included the following: 1) it solicited customer feedback and, in its sole discretion, would offer a full or partial refund if there was an unfavorable outcome, 2) it represented that it was not a law firm, did not offer legal advice, and that none of the attorneys it connected with clients were its employees or agents, and 3) it was not owned by lawyers admitted in New York.

Based on those facts, the Committee then turned to the issue at hand and considered whether “the portion of the legal fee paid by the client but retained by the online lawyer matching service constitute(d) an impermissible referral fee?”

At the outset, the Committee noted that pursuant to Rule 7.2(a), New York lawyers are not usually permitted to pay fees for client referrals. However, the comments to the rule clarify that online lead generation services are an exception as long as the service does not imply or create “a reasonable impression that it is recommending the lawyer… or has analyzed a person’s legal problems when determining which lawyer should receive the referral.”

The Committee explained that previously, in Opinion 1131, it had concluded that a lawyer could ethically pay a service fee to an online referral service where “neutral” and “mechanical” factors were applied when matching a potential client with a lawyers. Conversely, the Committee noted that in Opinion 1132, it concluded that a referral fee paid to Avvo Legal Services was impermissible since a number of different aspects of the service when considered together amounted to an attorney recommendation.

Next, the Committee turned to the factual scenario at hand and concluded that the online service setup was very similar to Avvo’s and thus constituted fee-sharing based on an impermissible recommendation. The Committee explained the attorney could not participate on the site since the matching service was “based on factors that include attorney success rate, response rate, and customer service rating…(and it) plainly strives to give potential clients the impression that it has selected the ‘best’ or ‘right’ lawyer for the potential client’s matter, and that the lawyer selected is preferred over other candidates in the service’s database.”

Accordingly, the lesson to be learned is that New York lawyers should participate in online referral services that provide lead generation for lawyers with care. If there is anything in the marketing language or website description of the service that gives the impression that the service will be vouching for the lawyer’s credentials and competence and/or will recommend that a particular lawyer is the “best lawyer” for a potential client’s needs, then walk the other way.

As I always say, if it’s unclear, err on the side of caution and just say no. You’ve got everything to lose from using a questionable service and very little to gain.

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.


The importance of technology competence when communicating electronically

Stacked3Here is a recent Daily Record column. My past Daily Record articles can be accessed here.

*****

The importance of technology competence when communicating electronically

I’m sure that by now you’ve already seen the now infamous cat filter court hearing video. If not, Google it and watch it. I’ll wait.

Now that you’re back, let’s talk about how you can avoid replicating that unfortunate predicament. The short answer? By maintaining technology competence when using electronic methods to communicate with clients and colleagues.

It’s always been important to ensure that you understand how to use the technologies that you use regularly in your practice. But now that many of us are working - and appearing in court - remotely, it’s imperative that lawyers are technologically competent when communicating electronically.

If you’re not sure what your obligations are when it comes to electronic communications or aren’t sure where to start, you’re in luck. The Florida Bar issued an updated guide last year that’s right on point: “Best Practices for Professional Electronic Communication.” 

This 25-page ebook offers a comprehensive overview of the ins and outs of different types of electronic communication and the issues lawyers need to understand when using said technologies. The types of electronic communications covered include texting, email, social media, telephones and cellphones, laptops, and court appearances via videoconference.

I recommend that you read the guide in its entirety since it contains at ton of useful information about securely and ethically communicating electronically. In the meantime, here are some highlights to get you started.

For starters, let’s take a look at the technology considerations you need to be aware of when texting. First and foremost, please understand that like the internet (see last week’s column), texting is forever. As the authors explain, “text messages can be saved on a cell phone within the actual conversation or on a smartphone by simply taking a screenshot of the conversation. These captured text messages can be forwarded to other recipients or exported from the device.” So please, text with care.

Other useful tips to keep in mind when texting include the following: 1) understand that text threads can be altered, and 2) when texting with or about clients, familiarize yourself with the backup policies, retrieval methods, metadata, etc. that texting service providers and devices employ to allow the retention and destruction of sent and received text messages.

The advice relating to email was likewise instructive, and worth taking note of. First, the authors focused on email attachments and the importance of understanding and managing any metadata contained therein: “Attachments may contain metadata that could disclose unwanted information to the recipient (and may) contain malicious software code (so) use scanning software for both outbound and inbound emails.”

Another important factor that was emphasized was the need to preserve confidentiality when using email. The authors explained the risks of using unencrypted email when sharing confidential information: “(I)f you use email as form of confidential communication, you should know the risks and be familiar with the options of sending secure/encrypted messages (since) there is always a chance that your email may be intercepted. Many of these risks are mitigated if not entirely eradicated when using an encrypted email service.”

Because of those risks, the authors recommended that lawyers use secure client portals like the ones built into law practice management software in lieu of email: “Secure client portals are an emerging and safe alternative to email. There are many case and practice management systems that offer a client portal component. You should seriously consider this option as a method of communication for confidential information.”

And last but not least, let’s bring it full circle and take a look at some of their recommendations regarding virtual court proceedings. First and foremost, the authors emphasized the importance of technology competence, and explained that judges should “(a)llow a few minutes more than you normally would before the time to begin to ensure technology is working.” Similarly, another piece of advice was to “have technology staff on standby, readily available to handle any technology issues that may arise.”

Take that last tip to heart, dear readers, on the off chance that you, too, end up imprisoned behind an adorable filter at the start of a hearing. With a tech-savvy assistant nearby, you’ll be able to quickly address the issue and thus avoid being immortalized via an internet meme as a very cute, albeit distressed, cat.

Nicole Black is a Rochester, New York attorney, author, journalist, and the Legal Technology Evangelist at MyCase  law practice management software for small law firms. She is the author of the ABA book Cloud Computing for Lawyers, co-authors the ABA book Social Media for Lawyers: the Next Frontier, and co-authors Criminal Law in New York, a Thomson Reuters treatise. She writes legal technology columns for Above the Law and ABA Journal and speaks regularly at conferences regarding the intersection of law and technology. You can follow her on Twitter at @nikiblack or email her at niki.black@mycase.com.